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Computes an unbiased estimate the variance of all input points.


	function variance (
		value  : numeric   

	return_val [1] :  float or double



An array of any dimensionality.

Return value

Returns a floating point value, or type double if value is of type double.


This function computes the unbiased estimate of the variance for all input points, regardless of the dimensionality of the input. Technically, this function calculates an estimate of the sample variance. This means that it divides by [1/(N-1)] where N is the total number of non-missing values.

See Also

dim_variance, dim_variance_n, dim_variance_Wrap, dim_variance_n_Wrap


Example 1

The following calculates the population and sample variance of 5 values. For illustration, a step-by-step calculation of the variance is done. The variances returned by NCL's three built-in variance funtions are included.

  f      = (/ 7, 9, -2, -8, 2/)

  favg   = avg(f)             ; average
  fdev   = f-favg             ; deviations
  fdev2  = fdev^2             ; deviations squared
  nf     = dimsizes(f)        ; N

  pvar   = sum(fdev2)/nf      ; population variance 

  svar   = sum(fdev2)/(nf-1)  ; sample variance 
  var1   = variance(f)
  var2   = dim_variance(f)
  var3   = dim_variance_n(f,0)

  print("pvar="+pvar+"  svar="+svar+"  var1="+var1+"  var2="+var2+"  var3="+var3)

output:   pvar=37.84  svar=47.3  var1=47.3  var2=47.3  var3=47.3

Example 2

The following calculates the overall variance of a (3,5,10) array, f.

  f = onedtond(ispan(1, 150, 1), (/3, 5, 10/))
  variance_f = variance(f)

Variable: variance_f
Type: float
Total Size: 4 bytes
            1 values
Number of Dimensions: 1
Dimensions and sizes:   [1]
(0)     1887.5